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4434The Prisoner's Dilemma
http://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=80719
Provides an interactive version of the Prisoner's Dilemma, which was developed in game theory and which illustrates the role and importance of trust and cooperation in social structures. Also includes a good exposition (״Dilemma in Detail״) of the ideas behind prisoner's dilemma, development of the game, links to political philosophy, and some of its practical applications (economic exchanges, public goods, nuclear disarmament).14.11 Insights from Game Theory into Social Behavior (MIT)
http://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=884275
We will apply insights from game theory to explain human social behavior, focusing on novel applications which have heretofore been the realm of psychologists and philosophers—for example, why people speak indirectly, in what sense beauty is socially constructed, and where our moral intuitions come from—and eschewing traditional economic applications such as industrial organization or auctions. We will employ standard games such as the prisoners dilemma, coordination, hawk-dove, and costly signaling, and use standard game theory tools such as Nash Equilibria, Subgame Perfection, and Perfect Bayesian Equilibria. These tools will be taught from scratch and no existing knowledge of game theory, economics, or mathematics is required. At the same time, students familiar with these games and tools will not find the course redundant because of the focus on non-orthodox applications.14.12 Economic Applications of Game Theory (MIT)
http://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=884411
Game Theory, also known as Multiperson Decision Theory, is the analysis of situations in which the payoff of a decision maker depends not only on his own actions but also on those of others. Game Theory has applications in several fi…elds, such as economics, politics, law, biology, and computer science. In this course, I will introduce the basic tools of game theoretic analysis. In the process, I will outline some of the many applications of Game Theory, primarily in economics.6.254 Game Theory with Engineering Applications (MIT)
http://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=884346
This course is an introduction to the fundamentals of game theory and mechanism design. Motivations are drawn from engineered/networked systems (including distributed control of wireline and wireless communication networks, incentive-compatible/dynamic resource allocation, multi-agent systems, pricing and investment decisions in the Internet), and social models (including social and economic networks). The course emphasizes theoretical foundations, mathematical tools, modeling, and equilibrium notions in different environments.A Game Theoretic Framework for Data Privacy Preservation in Recommender Systems
http://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=941960
This video was recorded at European Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (ECML PKDD), Athens 2011. We address the fundamental tradeoff between privacy preservation and high-quality recommendation stemming from a third party. Multiple users submit their ratings to a third party about items they have viewed. The third party aggregates the ratings and generates personalized recommendations for each user. The quality of recommendations for each user depends on submitted rating profiles from all users, including the user to which the recommendation is destined. Each user would like to declare a rating profile so as to preserve data privacy as much as possible, while not causing deterioration in the quality of the recommendation he would get, compared to the one he would get if he revealed his true private profile. We employ game theory to model and study the interaction of users and we derive conditions and expressions for the Nash Equilibrium Point (NEP). This consists of the rating strategy of each user, such that no user can benefit in terms of improving its privacy by unilaterally deviating from that point. User strategies converge to the NEP after an iterative best-response strategy update. For a hybrid recommendation system, we find that the NEP strategy for each user in terms of privacy preservation is to declare false rating only for one item, the one that is highly ranked in his private profile and less correlated with items for which he anticipates recommendation. We also present various modes of cooperation by which users can mutually benefit.A Polynomial-time Nash Equilibrium Algorithm for Repeated Stochastic Games
http://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=982518
This video was recorded at 24th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI), Helsinki 2008. We present a polynomial-time algorithm that always finds an (approximate) Nash equilibrium for repeated two-player stochastic games. The algorithm exploits the folk theorem to derive a strategy profile that forms an equilibrium by buttressing mutually beneficial behavior with threats, where possible. One component of our algorithm efficiently searches for an approximation of the egalitarian point, the fairest pareto-efficient solution. The paper concludes by applying the algorithm to a set of grid games to illustrate typical solutions the algorithm finds. These solutions compare very favorably to those found by competing algorithms, resulting in strategies with higher social welfare, as well as guaranteed computational efficiency.Basic Concepts of Game Theory
http://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=977008
This video was recorded at ECOLEAD WP5 Meeting, Paris 2005. The WP5 meeting in Paris was aimed at presenting several relevant theories, methods and techniques for CNO modelling that are mastered by ECOLEAD partners. The workshop took place in Paris in June 2004.Chaos and Stability in Learning Random Two-person Games
http://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=940779
This video was recorded at 4th European Conference on Complex Systems. Game theory often assumes perfect rationality. All agents know all payoff structures. They assume their opponents play fully rationally. Outcomes: Nash equilibria. No player has an incentive to deviate unilaterally.Coherent inference on optimal play in game trees
http://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=936222
This video was recorded at 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS), Sardinia 2010. Round-based games are an instance of discrete planning problems. Some of the best contemporary game tree search algorithms use random roll-outs as data. Relying on a good policy, they learn on-policy values by propagating information upwards in the tree, but not between sibling nodes. Here, we present a generative model and a corresponding approximate message passing scheme for inference on the optimal, off-policy value of nodes in smooth AND/OR trees, given random roll-outs. The crucial insight is that the distribution of values in game trees is not completely arbitrary. We define a generative model of the on-policy values using a latent score for each state, representing the value under the random roll-out policy. Inference on the values under the optimal policy separates into an inductive, pre-data step and a deductive, post-data part. Both can be solved approximately with Expectation Propagation, allowing off-policy value inference for any node in the (exponentially big) tree in linear time.Combined Problems of Cooperation and Coordination
http://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=940871
This video was recorded at 4th European Conference on Complex Systems. In game theory, much attention has been paid to symmetrical 2-players games with binary decisions of the players. Within this frame, questions of social cooperation and social dilemmas have mostly been attached to investigations of the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) with T > R > P > S and 2R > T + S. In this context, the readiness of individuals to resist the temptation to defect is studied in various settings. These investigations aim at explaining the origin and stability of cooperation among selfish individuals. But what if the readiness to resist temptation is not enough to reach a desired outcome? Maybe there are more than one desired solutions and the individuals additionally have to coordinate their actions to realize one of them. In this work, I focus on game theoretical conflicts that exhibit a combination of cooperation and coordination problems in the same game. Examples are (i) the Turn-Taking Dilemma (Neill, 2003) and (ii) the Route Choice Game (Helbing et al., 2005; Stark et al., 2007). The first one, (i), is similar to the above described PD, but the second inequality is reversed to T + S > 2R. The Pareto-inefficient equilibrium, and, thereby, the cooperation dilemma remains the same, but the system optimal solution (maximal cumulative payoff) is shifted to the off diagonal of the bimatrix. When considering an iterated game, this leads to a non-trivial, temporal coordination problem as flipping between the upper right and the lower left solutions of the bimatrix would lead to the only Pareto-efficient solution of the supergame. The latter point also holds for the Route Choice Game with T > P > S > R and T + S > 2P, that represents the problem of efficient usage of networks with capacity-restricted links (traffic networks, data-communication networks). Of course, investigations regarding the performance of systems with this underlying conflict yield completely different results than those with a PD game underlying. However, currently there is very little work done in this direction. In this contribution, I will present my current research on this topic as well as empirical results of previous work. [1] Helbing, D.; Schönhof, M.; Stark, H.-U.; Holyst, J. A. (2005). How individuals learn to take turns: Emergence of alternating cooperation in a congestion game and the prisoner's dilemma. Adv. Complex Syst. 8, 87-116; [2] Neill, D. B. (2003). Cooperation and coordination in the turn-taking dilemma. In: TARK. pp. 231-244; [3] Stark, H.-U.; Helbing, D.; Schönhof, M.; Holyst, J. A. (2007). Alternating cooperation strategies in a route choice game: Theory, experiments, and effects of a learning scenario. In: A. Innocenti; P. Sbriglia (eds.), Games, Rationality, and Behaviour, Palgrave, MacMillan.