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This is a free, online textbook that is actually designed for health science students and workers. However, the basics can also apply to any other discipline. It is an update of a textbook from the U.K, in which the author says,"I think the main change has been an emphasis now on looking and plotting the data first, and on...
This is a free, online textbook that is actually designed for health science students and workers. However, the basics can also apply to any other discipline. It is an update of a textbook from the U.K, in which the author says,"I think the main change has been an emphasis now on looking and plotting the data first, and on estimation rather than simple hypothesis testing. I have tried to reflect these changes in the new edition. I have found it a useful pedagogic device to pose questions to the students, and so have incorporated questions commonly asked by students or consultees at the end of each chapter. These questions cover issues often not explicitly addressed in elementary text books, such as how far one should test assumptions before proceeding with statistical tests. I have included a number of new techniques, such as stem and leaf plots, box whisker plots, data transformation, the test for trend and ttest with unequal variance. I have also included a chapter on survival analysis, with the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and the log rank test, as these are now in common use. I have replaced the Kendall rank correlation coefficient by the Spearman; in spite of the theoretical advantages of the former, most statistical packages compute only the latter. The section on linear regression has been extended. I have added a final chapter on the design of studies, and would make a plea for it not to be ignored. Studies rarely fail for want of a significance test, but a flawed design may be fatal. To keep the book short I have removed some details of hand calculation."