This course examines and evaluates the archival field's current preservation standards for storage and duplication. Critical preservation problems—such as nitrate deterioration, color fading, the vinegar syndrome, and irreplaceable formats—are extensively discussed. Throughout the seminar, case studies of specific restoration projects focus on the crucial ethical issues embedded within each technical and aesthetic decision facing the preservation specialist. Of special interest to this course is the question of whether it is possible and appropriate to speak of particular schools and/or philosophies of restoration. In addition, the seminar addresses a range of key issues, such as the identification of the original versus subsequent and multiple versions; the theoretical and practical distinctions between different types of restoration, and the implications of new, digital technologies that promise the ability to "improve" the original.