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-1-16.254 Game Theory with Engineering Applications (MIT)
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=884346
This course is an introduction to the fundamentals of game theory and mechanism design. Motivations are drawn from engineered/networked systems (including distributed control of wireline and wireless communication networks, incentive-compatible/dynamic resource allocation, multi-agent systems, pricing and investment decisions in the Internet), and social models (including social and economic networks). The course emphasizes theoretical foundations, mathematical tools, modeling, and equilibrium notions in different environments.Thu, 07 Aug 2014 00:10:22 GMTProf. Asu OzdaglarES.268 The Mathematics in Toys and Games
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=884520
We will explore the mathematical strategies behind popular games, toys, and puzzles. Topics covered will combine basic fundamentals of game theory, probability, group theory, and elementary programming concepts. Each week will consist of a lecture and discussion followed by game play to implement the concepts learned in class.Thu, 07 Aug 2014 00:13:43 GMTJing Li; Prof. Erik Demaine; Melissa GymrekThe Prisoner's Dilemma
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=80719
Provides an interactive version of the Prisoner's Dilemma, which was developed in game theory and which illustrates the role and importance of trust and cooperation in social structures. Also includes a good exposition ("Dilemma in Detail") of the ideas behind prisoner's dilemma, development of the game, links to political philosophy, and some of its practical applications (economic exchanges, public goods, nuclear disarmament).Fri, 19 Mar 2004 08:00:00 GMTSean Crawford, Department of Philosophy, The Open University (author of Dilemma in Detail) Rights Manager, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA14.11 Insights from Game Theory into Social Behavior (MIT)
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=884275
We will apply insights from game theory to explain human social behavior, focusing on novel applications which have heretofore been the realm of psychologists and philosophers—for example, why people speak indirectly, in what sense beauty is socially constructed, and where our moral intuitions come from—and eschewing traditional economic applications such as industrial organization or auctions. We will employ standard games such as the prisoners dilemma, coordination, hawk-dove, and costly signaling, and use standard game theory tools such as Nash Equilibria, Subgame Perfection, and Perfect Bayesian Equilibria. These tools will be taught from scratch and no existing knowledge of game theory, economics, or mathematics is required. At the same time, students familiar with these games and tools will not find the course redundant because of the focus on non-orthodox applications.Thu, 07 Aug 2014 00:08:42 GMTMoshe Hoffman; Erez Yoeli14.12 Economic Applications of Game Theory (MIT)
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=884411
Game Theory, also known as Multiperson Decision Theory, is the analysis of situations in which the payoff of a decision maker depends not only on his own actions but also on those of others. Game Theory has applications in several fi…elds, such as economics, politics, law, biology, and computer science. In this course, I will introduce the basic tools of game theoretic analysis. In the process, I will outline some of the many applications of Game Theory, primarily in economics.Thu, 07 Aug 2014 00:11:38 GMTProf. Muhamet YildizGame Theory .net
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=83374
This award-winning site is billed as a resource for educators and students of game theory. It contains online lecture notes, book reviews, a large number of interactive materials in various categories, quizzes, and more.Tue, 22 Mar 2005 08:00:00 GMTShor, Mike Vanderbilt UniversityLines a Strategy Game (Combinatorics)
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=74405
Learn math concepts of game theory and search algorithms while playing a game trying to line up five balls.Tue, 27 May 1997 07:00:00 GMTKonstantin LukinSolution to the Two-Person Zero-Sum Games
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=80561
This JavaScript provides the optimal solution to the two-person zero-sum games with up to five strategies for each player.Sun, 15 Feb 2004 08:00:00 GMTBarbra Bied Sperling CSU, Office of the ChancellorStrategy and Conflict: An Introductory Sketch of Game Theory
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=83481
This site contains a substantial, though incomplete, introduction to game theory that is now superceded by the author's published (print) textbook "Game Theory: A Nontechnical Introduction to the Analysis of Strategy."Thu, 31 Mar 2005 08:00:00 GMTMcCain, Roger Drexel UniversityGame Theory: An open access textbook with 165 solved exercises
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=1366067
<p>After teaching game theory (at both the undergraduate and graduate level) at the University of California, Davis for 25 years, the author decided to organize all his teaching material in a textbook. There are many excellent textbooks in game theory and there is hardly any need for a new one. However, there are two distinguishing features of this textbook: (1) it is open access and thus free, and (2) it contains an unusually large number of exercises (a total of 165) with complete and detailed answers.</p>
<p>The author tried to write the book in such a way that it would be accessible to anybody with minimum knowledge of mathematics (high-school level algebra and some elementary notions of probability) and no prior knowledge of game theory. However, the book is intended to be rigorous and it includes several proofs. The author believes it is appropriate for an advanced undergraduate class in game theory and also for a first-year graduate-level class.</p>Tue, 13 Feb 2018 16:32:22 GMTGiacomo Bonanno UC DavisIntroducción a la Teoría de Juegos
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=82355
Este sitio web presenta la teoría de un juego Suma- Cero de Dos- Personas con un ejemplo numérico ilustrativo. Incluye también las aplicaciones para una selección de portafolios óptima en una decisión de inversión en conjunto con la evaluación de su riesgo asociado. La teoría de juegos es sin duda un modelo para empresas ganadoras o exitosas en un ambiente competitivo.Thu, 14 Oct 2004 07:00:00 GMTBarbra Bied Sperling CSU, Office of the ChancellorThe Evolution of Cooperation: Simple Games and Complex Societies
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=940865
This video was recorded at 4th European Conference on Complex Systems. Studying complex systems has enormously changed our view of the world. The discovery that actions and reactions are often disproportionate and that small perturbations can cause tremendous responses, has led to new scientific disciplines such as catastrophe theory, chaos theory, and the theory of phase transitions. The behavior of complex systems is often dominated by their internal dynamics and hence only poorly controllable from outside. This has been addressed by the concepts of self-organisation and emergence. In many cases, a complex system can even evolve into one out of several (meta-)stable states, which is in clear contrast to linearly behaving systems with a unique solution. In addition, random perturbations, diversity (heterogeneity) in the properties of the individual system elements, network effects, time delays, and incomplete or uncertain information can lead to unexpected and sometimes paradoxical effects. The recently established European Complex Systems Society and the series of conferences under the title "European Conference on Complex Systems" has to be seen in this context. It aims at bringing together the various related disciplines, at focusing the diverse research activities, and at fostering them. The goals of this annual conference are to reflect the recent progress in the field of complexity science and to significantly increase the actively involved community. more on ECCS 2007 DresdenMon, 09 Feb 2015 05:11:08 GMTKarl Sigmund Faculty for Mathematics, University of ViennaTwo-Person Zero-Sum Games with Applications
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=76095
A strategic solution algorithm with illustrative numerical example is provided. Applications to optimal portfolio selections in investment decision together with its risk assessment are presented.Sat, 05 Jan 2002 08:00:00 GMTBarbra Bied Sperling CSU, Office of the ChancellorA Game Theoretic Framework for Data Privacy Preservation in Recommender Systems
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=941960
This video was recorded at European Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (ECML PKDD), Athens 2011. We address the fundamental tradeoff between privacy preservation and high-quality recommendation stemming from a third party. Multiple users submit their ratings to a third party about items they have viewed. The third party aggregates the ratings and generates personalized recommendations for each user. The quality of recommendations for each user depends on submitted rating profiles from all users, including the user to which the recommendation is destined. Each user would like to declare a rating profile so as to preserve data privacy as much as possible, while not causing deterioration in the quality of the recommendation he would get, compared to the one he would get if he revealed his true private profile. We employ game theory to model and study the interaction of users and we derive conditions and expressions for the Nash Equilibrium Point (NEP). This consists of the rating strategy of each user, such that no user can benefit in terms of improving its privacy by unilaterally deviating from that point. User strategies converge to the NEP after an iterative best-response strategy update. For a hybrid recommendation system, we find that the NEP strategy for each user in terms of privacy preservation is to declare false rating only for one item, the one that is highly ranked in his private profile and less correlated with items for which he anticipates recommendation. We also present various modes of cooperation by which users can mutually benefit.Mon, 09 Feb 2015 05:19:53 GMTData & Web Mining Lab; Maria Halkidi Athens University of Economics and Business; University of PiraeusA Polynomial-time Nash Equilibrium Algorithm for Repeated Stochastic Games
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=982518
This video was recorded at 24th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI), Helsinki 2008. We present a polynomial-time algorithm that always finds an (approximate) Nash equilibrium for repeated two-player stochastic games. The algorithm exploits the folk theorem to derive a strategy profile that forms an equilibrium by buttressing mutually beneficial behavior with threats, where possible. One component of our algorithm efficiently searches for an approximation of the egalitarian point, the fairest pareto-efficient solution. The paper concludes by applying the algorithm to a set of grid games to illustrate typical solutions the algorithm finds. These solutions compare very favorably to those found by competing algorithms, resulting in strategies with higher social welfare, as well as guaranteed computational efficiency.Tue, 10 Feb 2015 22:40:19 GMTEnrique Munoz de Cote Politecnico di MilanoBasic Concepts of Game Theory
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=977008
This video was recorded at ECOLEAD WP5 Meeting, Paris 2005. The WP5 meeting in Paris was aimed at presenting several relevant theories, methods and techniques for CNO modelling that are mastered by ECOLEAD partners. The workshop took place in Paris in June 2004.Tue, 10 Feb 2015 21:54:28 GMTToni JarimoChaos and Stability in Learning Random Two-person Games
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=940779
This video was recorded at 4th European Conference on Complex Systems. Game theory often assumes perfect rationality. All agents know all payoff structures. They assume their opponents play fully rationally. Outcomes: Nash equilibria. No player has an incentive to deviate unilaterally.Mon, 09 Feb 2015 05:10:21 GMTTobias Galla Theoretical Physics Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of ManchesterCoherent inference on optimal play in game trees
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=936222
This video was recorded at 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS), Sardinia 2010. Round-based games are an instance of discrete planning problems. Some of the best contemporary game tree search algorithms use random roll-outs as data. Relying on a good policy, they learn on-policy values by propagating information upwards in the tree, but not between sibling nodes. Here, we present a generative model and a corresponding approximate message passing scheme for inference on the optimal, off-policy value of nodes in smooth AND/OR trees, given random roll-outs. The crucial insight is that the distribution of values in game trees is not completely arbitrary. We define a generative model of the on-policy values using a latent score for each state, representing the value under the random roll-out policy. Inference on the values under the optimal policy separates into an inductive, pre-data step and a deductive, post-data part. Both can be solved approximately with Expectation Propagation, allowing off-policy value inference for any node in the (exponentially big) tree in linear time.Mon, 09 Feb 2015 04:30:33 GMTPhilipp Hennig Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Max Planck InstituteCombined Problems of Cooperation and Coordination
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=940871
This video was recorded at 4th European Conference on Complex Systems. In game theory, much attention has been paid to symmetrical 2-players games with binary decisions of the players. Within this frame, questions of social cooperation and social dilemmas have mostly been attached to investigations of the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) with T > R > P > S and 2R > T + S. In this context, the readiness of individuals to resist the temptation to defect is studied in various settings. These investigations aim at explaining the origin and stability of cooperation among selfish individuals. But what if the readiness to resist temptation is not enough to reach a desired outcome? Maybe there are more than one desired solutions and the individuals additionally have to coordinate their actions to realize one of them. In this work, I focus on game theoretical conflicts that exhibit a combination of cooperation and coordination problems in the same game. Examples are (i) the Turn-Taking Dilemma (Neill, 2003) and (ii) the Route Choice Game (Helbing et al., 2005; Stark et al., 2007). The first one, (i), is similar to the above described PD, but the second inequality is reversed to T + S > 2R. The Pareto-inefficient equilibrium, and, thereby, the cooperation dilemma remains the same, but the system optimal solution (maximal cumulative payoff) is shifted to the off diagonal of the bimatrix. When considering an iterated game, this leads to a non-trivial, temporal coordination problem as flipping between the upper right and the lower left solutions of the bimatrix would lead to the only Pareto-efficient solution of the supergame. The latter point also holds for the Route Choice Game with T > P > S > R and T + S > 2P, that represents the problem of efficient usage of networks with capacity-restricted links (traffic networks, data-communication networks). Of course, investigations regarding the performance of systems with this underlying conflict yield completely different results than those with a PD game underlying. However, currently there is very little work done in this direction. In this contribution, I will present my current research on this topic as well as empirical results of previous work. [1] Helbing, D.; Schönhof, M.; Stark, H.-U.; Holyst, J. A. (2005). How individuals learn to take turns: Emergence of alternating cooperation in a congestion game and the prisoner's dilemma. Adv. Complex Syst. 8, 87-116; [2] Neill, D. B. (2003). Cooperation and coordination in the turn-taking dilemma. In: TARK. pp. 231-244; [3] Stark, H.-U.; Helbing, D.; Schönhof, M.; Holyst, J. A. (2007). Alternating cooperation strategies in a route choice game: Theory, experiments, and effects of a learning scenario. In: A. Innocenti; P. Sbriglia (eds.), Games, Rationality, and Behaviour, Palgrave, MacMillan.Mon, 09 Feb 2015 05:11:12 GMTHans-Ulrich Stark Chair of Systems Design, ETH ZurichConvergence of Natural Dynamics to Eqilibria
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=945893
This video was recorded at 26th International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML), Montreal 2009. Recently, a lot of eﬀort has been devoted to analyzing response dynamics in various games. Questions about the dynamics themselves and their convergence properties attracted a great deal of attention. This includes, for example, questions like "How long do uncoordinated agents need to reach an equilibrium?" and "Do uncoordinated agents quickly reach a state with low social cost?". An important aspect in studying such dynamics is the learning model employed by self-interested agents in these models. Studying the eﬀect of learning algorithms on the convergence rate of players is crucial for developing a solid understanding of the corresponding games. In this tutorial, we ﬁrst describe an overview of the required terminology from game theory. Then, we survey results about the convergence of myopic and learning-based best responses of players to equilibria and approximately optimal solutions, and study the eﬀect of various learning algorithms in convergence (rate). Throughout the tutorial, we describe fundamental connections between local search algorithms and learning algorithms with the convergence of best-response dynamics in multi-agent games.Mon, 09 Feb 2015 05:55:55 GMTEyal Even Dar; Vahab S. Mirrokni Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania; Google Research New YorkEquilibrium Transitions in Stochastic Evolutionary Games
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=940834
This video was recorded at 4th European Conference on Complex Systems. We analyze the long-run behaviour of stochastic dynamics in well-mixed populations and in spatial games with local interactions. We review results concerning the effect of the number of players and the noise level on the stochastic stability of Nash equilibria. To address the problem of equilibrium selection in spatial games with many players, we introduce a concept of ensemble stability. The standard stochastic stability describes a long-run behaviour of systems with a fixed number of players in the zero-noise limit. On the contrary, the ensemble stability is concerned with a fixed (but nevertheless low) noise level in the limit of the infinite number of players. We present examples of games in which when the number of players increases or the noise level decreases, a population undergoes a transition between its equilibria. In particular, it may happen that a risk-dominant and Pareto-efficient strategy, which is stochastically stable, in the long run is played with an arbitrarily small probability if the noise level is low and the number of players is big enough.Mon, 09 Feb 2015 05:10:51 GMTJacek Miekisz Institute of Appplied Mathematics and Mechanics, Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics, and Mechanics, University of WarsawEvaluating Deterministic Policies in Two-player Iterated Games
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=940769
This video was recorded at 4th European Conference on Complex Systems. We construct a statistical ensemble of games, where in each independent subensemble we have two players playing the same game. We derive the mean payoffs per move of the representative players of the game, and we evaluate all the deterministic policies with finite memory. In particular,we show that if one of the players has a generalized tit-for-tat policy,the mean payoff per move of both players is the same, forcing the equalization of the mean payoffs per move of both players. In the case of symmetric, non-cooperative and dilemmatic games, we show that generalized tit-for-tat or imitation policies together with the condition of not being the first to defect, leads to the highest mean payoffs per move for the players. Within this approach, it can be decided which policies perform better than others.The Prisoner's Dilemma and the Hawk-Dove games have been analyzed,and the equilibrium states of the infinitely iterated games have been determined. The infinitely iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game can have Nash solutions only if players have deterministic policies.Mon, 09 Feb 2015 05:10:15 GMTRui Dilão NonLinear Dynamics Group, IST - Instituto Superior TécnicoExploration exploitation in Go: UCT for Monte-Carlo Go
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=976854
This video was recorded at NIPS Workshop on On-line Trading of Exploration and Exploitation, Whistler 2006. Trading exploration and exploitation plays a key role in a number of learning tasks. For example the bandit problem provides perhaps the simplest case in which we must decide a trade-off between pulling the arm that appears most advantageous and experimenting with arms for which we do not have accurate information. Similar issues arise in learning problems where the information received depends on the choices made by the learner. Learning studies have frequently concentrated on the final performance of the learned system rather than consider the errors made during the learning process. For example reinforcement learning has traditionally been concerned with showing convergence to an optimal policy, while in contrast analysis of the bandit problem has attempted to bound the extra loss experienced during the learning process when compared with an a priori optimal agent. This workshop provides a focus for work concerned with on-line trading of exploration and exploitation, in particular providing a forum for extensions to the bandit problem, invited presentations by researchers working in related areas in other disciplines, as well as discussion and contributed papers.Tue, 10 Feb 2015 21:53:08 GMTSilvain Gelly University of Paris-Sud 11Game theoretic models in molecular biology
https://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=977534
This video was recorded at Workshop on Probabilistic Modeling and Machine Learning in Structural and Systems Biology (PMSB), Tuusula 2006. There are many challenges in computational modeling of biological processes. Few processes such as signaling pathways operate in- dependently of others but rather involve substantial coordination and shared resources. The level of abstraction appropriate for understand- ing different processes, e.g, viewing a pathway as a filter or a molecular cascade, varies by context and the type of predictions sought.Tue, 10 Feb 2015 21:59:08 GMTTommi Jaakkola Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT