This module on Mutations and Genetic Information is from the Supersite "DNA From the Beginning." Genetic experiments performed by Hermann Muller and Thomas Hunt Morgan (with fruit flies), along with investigations by Seymour Benzer (with viruses), are described. Users of this site are guided through several experiments to show how mutations lead to changes in genetic information. This unit is organized as a set of about a dozen or so ideas that delineate how scientists came to understand the fundamental concepts. This tutorial begins with a brief outline of the questions that lead to the conclusions, followed by a statement of the concept. A more in-depth examination of the concept is achieved through the animation menu, which accesses an animated tutorial of the basic experimental design(s) that guide users through the learning material. Users may access the "Problem" menu, which presents several multiple choice questions requiring interpretation of the experimental results presented in the tutorial. The questions are instantly graded, providing immediate feedback. Additional menus are: the "Picture Gallery," with images of historical photographs of researchers, lab, and laboratory equipment used in the experiments described; the "Audio/Video" menu, that presents QuickTime interviews with researchers who discuss the concept in more detail; and a "Biography" menu, providing further information about the key scientists. A "Links" menu provides further bibliographic information, as well as links to additional relevant sites.
Type of Material:
Tutorial and Animation / Interactive Lesson
This material can be used in lecture or for independent study to learn about molecular genetics.
Flash Player and QuickTime are needed to see animations and view video clips.
Identify Major Learning Goals:
Understanding of the key concepts and experiments used to study classical genetics,
molecular genetics, and gene organization and control.
Target Student Population:
Advanced high school as well as undergraduate and graduate students
Prerequisite Knowledge or Skills:
No prerequisite knowledge is required, but some background in chemistry, genetics, and molecular biology may help users better understand the information.
Evaluation and Observation
Clearly laid out, well organized, and very well presented
Very complete and accurate information with appropriate vocabulary
Content follows a logical progression, both conceptually and chronologically
Exceptional combination of animation and video interviews
The breadth of coverage is impressive and complete
Perhaps the titles of the units could be modified to more closely delineate the topic(s) covered.
More of a historical account of the experiments, it would be nice to show how this may apply to human diseases for example.
Potential Effectiveness as a Teaching Tool
Excellent source of tutorial information
Tutorials promote understanding of basic concepts and contain more than one approach to understanding the concept
Tutorial animations and problems lend themselves to the creation of additional questions such as "where do we go from here?"
Interactive quizzes provide immediate reasons for correct and incorrect answers
Video interviews with famous scientists provide motivation for student learning
The animations represent an excellent collection of scientific reasoning and logic, and focus on "how we know" not just "what we know." The animations frequently begin with a famous scientist posing a problem to be solved. This approach may make more of a connection between the results of a classical experiment and the mind behind the reasoning. The constant flow of scientific reasoning from unit to unit provides a clear and impressive thread of logic showing how scientists realized that DNA is the genetic material.
The tutorials could be improved by adding sound and expanding upon the interactivity of some of the Flash Player animations
Counting the numbers of nucleotide differences between two sequences is not engaging much in the way of critical thinking.
Ease of Use for Both Students and Faculty
Clear and accurate instructions
easy to navigate, intuitive and fast
Widespread and effective use of animation
Definitions linked directly to the term
Excellent use of Flash Player and QuickTime video clips
At the time of this review, the links for Elof Carlson and Svante Paabo did not navigate properly.
Other Issues and Comments:
The animations represent an excellent collection of scientific reasoning and logic, and focus on "how we know" not just "what we know." The animations frequently begin with a famous scientist posing a problem to be solved. This approach may make more of a connection between the results of a classical experiment and the mind behind the reasoning. The constant flow of scientific reasoning from unit to unit provides a clear and impressive thread of logic showing how scientists realized that DNA is the genetic material. The interviews with scientists are valuable tools for learning and understanding the methods of science. The authors might consider adding sound and expand upon the interactivity of some of the Flash Player animations.