Course ePortfolio

Neuroscience Course for Basic Medical Sciences

Neuroscience is a comprehensive lecture and laboratory course that provides an integrated multidisciplinary study of the structure and functional relationships of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Essential to a proper understanding of Neurosciences is the ability to classify, correlate, associate and link the various entities and modules, much the same way as normal human cognition works in real life. This subject assumes basic knowledge of anatomy of Head and Cranial nerves. The syllabus is divided into easily understandable modules based on Snell’s chapter, supplemented by Board Review Series. Neurobiology and neurophysiology, brain metabolism, and the effects of damage and disease on cells of the central nervous system are covered in detail in the initial part of the course. Students are also introduced to techniques of neuro-imaging and taught introductory clinical assessment during this time. Thereafter the entire central nervous system, from spinal cord upwards to the cerebral cortex, is covered in minute detail. Each component of CNS is subdivided into two parts; the normal concepts and the pertinent clinical correlations. Knowledge is imparted by comprehensive techniques that utilize visual, verbal, auditory and kinesthetic learning styles of individuals. Learning is enhanced through laboratory gross brain dissection, imaging techniques and discussion of clinical correlations. Research skills are honed by subjecting students to a small project work, which they have to present towards the end of the course.


Course:

Lecture-series 1: Introduction and Organization of the nervous system

Lecture-series 2: Neurobiology of the neuron and neuroglia

Lecture-series 3: Nerve fibers, Peripheral nerve fibers, Receptors & Effector endings, Dermatomes & Muscle activity

Share

Learning objectives of series 1

• Nervous system functional correlate (Slide 3) • Main divisions of nervous system (Slides 4 – 5) • Coverings / spaces of the CNS (Slides 6 – 9) • Histological components of NS (Slides 10) • Subdivisions of CNS (Slide 11) • Spinal cord subdivisions / dissection / overview of tracts (Slides 12 – 15) • Subdivisions of PNS (Slide 16) • Spinal nerves (Slides 17 – 18); Spinal segment (Slide 19); Dermatomes (Slides 19 – 26) • Cranial nerves: Overview (Slide 27) • Ganglia: Spinal / Cranial / Autonomic (28 – 33) • Brain: Embryological subdivisions / component overview (Slides 34 – 48) • Vertebral – spinal segment relationships (3 – 4) • Vertebral injuries in relation to spinal cord (5 – 12) • Spinal root / Dermato-myotome / Segmental innervations / lesions (Slides 13 – 21) • Spinal nerve in relation to IV foramen (Slides 22 – 24) • Herniated nucleus pulposus (Slides 25 – 37) • Lesions of nerve roots / Radiculopathy (w/ vignette) (Slide 38 – 43) • Lumbar puncture / Epidural analgesia (44 – 49) • Skull fractures (Slides 50 – 53) • Brain injuries / Intracranial hemorrhages / Shaken baby syndrome (Slides 54 – 62) • Intracranial space-occupying lesion (Slides 63 – 70) • Imaging techniques / principles / interpretations– CT, MRI, PET (Slides 71 – 80)

Learning objectives of series 2

• Neuron and its parts (Slide 3) • Neuron varieties – classification (Slides 4 – 12) • Ganglia histology: Sensory / Autonomic (13 – 15) • Neuronal biology – organelles (Slide 16 – 32) • Neurites: Dendrite / Axons – components, structure (Slides 33 – 40) • Axonal transport mechanisms (Slides 41 – 44) • Synapse – Types; structure, function (Slides 45 – 52) • Neuroglial cell types: Astrocytes, Oligodendroglia, Schwann cell, Microglia, Ependymocyte, Tancyte, Choroidal epithelial cell (Slides 53 – 70) • CNS extracellular space (Slide 71) • Axonal spread of disease (Slide 3) • Herpes zoster (Slides 4 – 6) • Pathological intracellular inclusions (Slides 7 – 12) • Peripheral neuropathy: Mono-/ MM / Poly-neuropathy; Diabetes, HIV w/ vignette (13 – 25) • Glial reactions to injury (Slides 26 – 27) • Cerebral edema types (Slides 28 – 29) • Brain tumors including Neurofibromatosis (NF) Type 2 (Slides 30 – 43) • Peripheral nerve tumors including NF-1 (44 – 47) Neurophysiology • Neuronal plasma membrane – structure (Slide 3) • Ion channels (Slides 4 – 6) • Plasma membrane electrophysiology / RMP (7 – 13) • Neuron action potential / Subthreshold; Ion- channels. Membrane conductance; Refractory periods; Hyperpolarization (Slides 14 – 23) • Nerve impulse; Determinants; Saltatory (24 – 30) Neurotransmitter – Pharmacology – Clinical • Neuromediators (Slides 31 – 34) • Calcium channels (Slides 35 – 36) • Synaptic receptors / Receptor potentials (37 – 44) • Acetylcholine (45 – 47); ACh receptor pharmacology (48 – 50) • Channel toxins / Local anesthetics (51 – 53) Neuromuscular junction – Physiology – Pharmacology – Clinical • NM junction structure and Physiology (54 – 64) • NMJ pharmacology • Anticholinesterases / SLUD syndrome • Biological ACh toxins • Myasthenia gravis w/ vignette • Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndro w/ vignette • Channelopathies w/ vignette

Learning objectives of series 3

• Myelinated of PNS / CNS / Unmyelinated nerve • Peripheral nerve structure • Nerve fiber classification • Extero-ceptor Functional / Anatomical classification; Types; Receptor physiology • Proprio-ceptors: NM / NT spindles, joint receptors • Muscle innervation, Myotome, Reflex arc, Tone, Posture; Higher control • Demyelinating diseases • PNS neuronal / process injury changes • PNS neuronal / axon recovery process • CNS neuronal injury / (non)-recovery • Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) – Seddon’s / Sunderland classification • Neurotmesis manifestations / recovery • Surgical Mx principles of PNI • Phantom limb • Involuntary movements / Sensory abnormalities • Clinical examination: Sensory / Motor

Pedagogical Approach

None

Learning Outcomes

Learning outcomes: At the end of these 3 lecture-series the student should

• Have a thorough knowledge of the basics of the nervous system, its classification and subdivisions

• Be absolutely clear about the essentials of neuro-cytology, neuro-physiological principles and the neurotransmitters involved in nerve conduction

• Have a working knowledge of the mechanisms of muscle activity, tone, posture and reflexes

• Have a broad overview of the clinical manifestations of nerve lesions (traumatic and pathological)

• To be able to perform sensory, motor and reflex testing • Know the basics of neuro-imaging techniques and principles

Assessment

None

Other Information

None

Course Resources

  • Brain Functional Areas1-Frontal Lobe
    I created this from PowerPoint, presented it live in my Neuroscience Med 3 class students in Medical University of the... More
  • Brain Functional Areas2-Parietal Lobe
    I created this from PowerPoint, presented it live in my Neuroscience Med 3 class students in Medical University of the... More
  • Brain Functional Areas3-Temporal Lobe
    I created this from PowerPoint, presented it live in my Neuroscience Med 3 class students in Medical University of the... More
  • Brain Functional Areas4-Occipital Lobe
    I created this from PowerPoint, presented it live in my Neuroscience Med 3 class students in Medical University of the... More
  • Stereognosis Transcortical Brain Function Demo
    I created this created this demonstration of brain function in my Neuroscience Med 3 class in Medical University of the... More
  • Cerebral Hemisphere Demonstration – Neuroscience Lab Fall 2013
    This demonstration was created on a formalinized human brain in the Neuroscience lab for Neuroscience Med 3 students in... More
  • Fornix – Basal Ganglia Demonstration – Neuroscience Lab Fall 2013
    This demonstration was created on a formalinized human brain in the Neuroscience lab for Neuroscience Med 3 students in... More
  • Caudate – Lentiform – Thalamus – Internal Capsule Demo – Neuro Lab Fall 2013
    This demonstration was created on a formalinized human brain in the Neuroscience lab for Neuroscience Med 3 students in... More
  • Cranial Nerves Examination Demonstration for FCM-III
    This Cranial Nerve examination was demonstrated in FCM (Foundation of Clinical Medicine)-III Lab  for Neuroscience Med 3... More
  • Motor-Sensory-Cerebellum Demonstration for FCM-III
    This Motor, Sensory, Cerebellum examination was demonstrated in FCM (Foundation of Clinical Medicine)-III Lab  for... More
  • Demonstrating Lumbar Puncture Steps On Gaumard Trainer
    Very useful for Med 3 Neuroscience Medical Students preparing for NBME Shelf, USMLE, Clinical Rotations
  • Technological innovations in Neurology-1
    Latest Neurology Tech stuff
  • Circumventricular Organs Location Cytoarchitecture Description
    Useful for Neuroscience Medical students preparing for USMLE
  • Brain Pia Mater and Derivatives
    Useful for medical students preparing for NBME and USMLE Step 1 Exams
  • Human Brain – Facts or Fiction
    Human Brain – Facts or Fiction (Learning Object Repository)
    Useful for all categories of academics and professionals
  • Human Brain Papez Circuit Demonstration
    Rarely seen video of Hippocampal Formation, Dentate Gyrus, Fimbria-Fornix, papez Circuit with such high resolution... More
  • Hippocampal Limbic Connections-Functions
    Rarely seen video of Hippocampal Formation, Dentate Gyrus, Fimbria-Fornix, Papez Circuit with such high resolution... More
  • MRI Safety in Patients with Implanted CV Devices
    cardiovascular devices, mri safety, sanjoy sanyal, MRI, Implanted devices, Ferromagnetic substances
  • Neural Control of Respiration – Abnormal Breathing Patterns
    Educational Value: A very complex and poorly understood topic has been rendered in as simple a format and style as... More
  • Brain Evolution And Information Explosion
    Educational Value: Shows relation between human learning capacity and information load in today's digital era of... More
  • Circumventricular Organs Presentation
    Circumventricular Organs (System) have been well studied, starting with Paul Ehrlich work with Trypan Blue in 1882, and... More
  • Lumbar Puncture Demonstration on Mannikin 2011
    Dr Sanjoy Sanyal, Professor and Course Director of neuroscience created this video with the YouTube Video Editor... More
  • Lumbar Puncture Demonstration on New Gaumard(R) LP Trainer
    Dr Sanjoy Sanyal, Professor and Course Director of neuroscience created this video with the YouTube Video Editor... More
  • Lumbar Puncture Demonstration Summer 2014
    Simulated LP on a trainer.
  • Basal Forebrain Components – Schizophrenia – Limbic Connections
    Educational Value: These topics are either not clearly explained in books and / or not clearly understood by many... More
  • Basal Forebrain Components – Schizophrenia – Limbic Connections
    This Video was created by Dr Sanjoy Sanyal, Professor and Course Director of Neuroscience. Camera person is Mr. Mark... More
  • Abnormal Right Vertebral Artery 2-D Serial MRI Images Video Narration – Sanjoy Sanyal
    Educational value: Not seen in a regular textbook - A description from a patient's file, with permission - Rare findings
  • Abnormal Right Vertebral Artery 3-D MRA Sequence Narration – Sanjoy Sanyal
    Educational value: Not seen in a regular textbook. Actual patient's case file, with permission. Rare findings in... More
  • Abnormal Vertebral Artery MRA Sequence – Sanjoy Sanyal
    Educational value: Not seen in a regular textbook. From an actual patient's casefile, with permission. Rare findings in... More
  • Tracking Brain Circulation via 2-D TOF MRI Slices – Sanjoy Sanyal
    Educational value: Way above any standard textbook - Actual patient's MRI rendered in the form of a video, with labels... More
  • Brain MRI FGRE-S Triplanar – Sanjoy Sanyal
    Educational Value: Transiting images, labelling and running background commentary makes it very informative. Way beyond... More