Foundations of Education and Instructional Assessment

Common Course ID: EDUC 200

CCC Instructor Open Textbook Adoption Portrait

Abstract: This open textbook is being utilized in a pre-service teacher course by Trudy Naman, Ed.D. at Santa Ana College in Southern California.  Successful completion of this course is required for the Elementary Education Associates degree. The textbook is authored by pre-service students at Old Dominion University. Ensuring that all students who desire to enter the teaching profession had access to the textbook was a strong motivating factor in its selection. Most students access the free open textbook online through the Wikibooks site.

COOLforED is a service of the California State University-MERLOT program.
Partial funding provided by the State of California, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation,
and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Questions? Email

About the Textbook

Foundations of Education and Instructional Assessment


This book is the newest iteration of a project that began in the fall of 2006. Students enrolled in a course called Introduction to the Social and Cultural Foundations of American Education at Old Dominion University wrote, read, studied and were tested on their very own textbook--Social and Cultural Foundations of American Education. When the old course was replaced with Foundations of Education and Instructional Assessment, the book was significantly revised in 2010.

The primary goal remains to prove that a student-authored textbook can be of high quality. Due to the vast availability of information via the Internet, traditional textbooks are no longer necessary to the same degree they were before the information age. 

The process of creating this text will serve to empower pre-service teachers with knowledge of technology and other skills such as effective communication and self/peer-editing that will serve them well when they enter the classroom as licensed teachers. 


  • Jennifer Kidd, Old Dominion University
  • Jamie Kaufman, Old Dominion University
  • Peter Baker, Old Dominion University
  • Patrick O'Shea, Old Dominion University
  • Dwight Allen, Old Dominion University
  • Undergraduate pre-service teachers at Old Dominion University's ECI 301.

Formats: Available as online wikibook or may be downloaded in PDF.

Supplemental Resources:  

I supplemented the textbook with open educational resources, as indicated in the sample assignment.

Peer Reviews: 

This textbook was peer reviewed by pre-service teachers and their instructors at Old Dominion University.

Cost Savings:  

The previously used textbook was Pearson's Introduction to Education customized by Santa Ana College faculty and was available new for $160. Since I teach 80 students per year, the total potential annual savings for students is $12,800.

Accessibility and Diversity: 

This wikibook features alt text for images and structural elements for web pages.


Except where otherwise noted, Foundations of Education and Instructional Assessment is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon the work even for commercial use, as long as the credit the author and licens their new creations under the identical terms.

cc-by-sa license

About the Course

EDUC 100: Introduction to Education


Introduction to the field of education including historical and philosophical perspectives; school governance and funding; societal influences and student diversity; school curriculum standards; professional standards and teaching performance expectations. Students will independently complete a minimum of 45 hours of Service Learning (structured observation and internship/fieldwork) in local public elementary school classrooms during the semester. 

Advisory: ENGL 100

GE Credit: 3 units, CSU/UC Transferable

Student Learning Outcomes: 

Upon successful completion of the course, students will be able to:

  • Broaden their understanding of the rewards and challenges in education
  • Appreciate student diversity and its impact on student outcomes
  • Understand how society’s influence impact the teaching profession
  • Gain awareness of current issues in education
  • Have a working knowledge of subject matter and academic content standards
  • Identify teaching performance standards and expectations
  • Interact with administrators, teachers, and students through service learning
  • Evaluate which level of education to pursue: elementary, middle, or high school 
  • Improve written and oral communication skills 

Curricular Changes:  None

Teaching and Learning Impact:

Collaborate more with others:Yes

Use wider range of materials:Ongoing

Student learning improved:Not measured

Student retention improved:Not measured

Any unexpected results: None

We have not yet measured whether student learning or retention is improved with the use of the online textbook.

I have used free educational resources in my classes for years even before OER became popular.  Bringing in outside resources that are current and relevant makes the class more meaningful for the students and me.

When I assign students multiple open educational resources to read about a topic, they are expected to take more ownership for their learning.  They will need to think critically about the different perspectives and synthesize their understanding for sharing during class discussions and online postings.   Below is a sample assignment that illustrates this approach I take with my students.

Sample Assignment and Syllabus:

Exploring Common Core using OER Assignment
Students are given links to open educational resources about the Common Core standards and are asked to analyze and synthesize the information and post to the class discussion board.

Rubic for Grading Discussion Board Posts
This is the rubric for grading students' posts to the class discussion board on Blackboard.

Education 100 Syllabus
Fall 2014 Education 100 Syllabus including expected coursework, policies, and grading.

Textbook Adoption

OER Adoption Process

Santa Ana College is one of the founding Kaleidoscope Project colleges and our Distance Education Coordinator, Cherylee Kushida, nominated me to participate in the redesign of the Introduction to Education course.  I participated in the nationwide committee training and worked with faculty from two higher education institutions to convert the course to be OER-based and use an open textbook.

It is very important to me that all students have the opportunity to read the textbook as this is a foundation for many of the course activities. The open textbook that we selected was last revised in 2010 and is missing material on the Common Core standards so I had to supplement the textbook with open educational resources on that topic. You can view the sample assignment I used for this below.

Student Access:  

Students access the text directly from the Wikibook site, but they can download in a PDF format and print out pages if desired.  Most students read the textbook online. This makes it challenging to use the text for in-class activities since they don't have easy access in the classroom.

Student Feedback on Using an Open Textbook:

  • I loved the online book because it is easier to read and carry with me. Whenever I didn't understand a word, I would easily google it and learned about it.
  • The online textbook was great! I loved it. I didn't have to carry a book through out the semester when i can just pull it up on my smartphone. It wasn't difficult to use. It was such a great experience as a first time of using an online textbook.
  • I loved the fact that I had to not pay for another book this semester! Online textbooks should be the next thing. Not only do you not have to carry your book around, you don't have to worry about loosing it.
  • It was my first experience of having the advantage to use an online book and no paying a single penny. It was very helpful for my economy and I think this great opportunity can help many other people like me to reach their college education at low cost. Thank You so much to Dr. Naman and everybody who made this possible.
  • Its a good idea to have an open resource book because it is beneficial and has good information as well as not having to buy a textbook.
  • I think it was easy to use the online textbook since I could read some of the chapters on my phone.
  • The overall of using the textbook online was easy to work with. I loved the way I didn't had to carry a book to class, I could have taken out my electronic device which made the textbook fun to read. It helped me money wise because Education textbooks are expensive.
  • I thought that having the Text Book online was much more than just saving money. It was nice to just pull it up anywhere with out having to bring a big bulky book with me. 
  • It was really helpful and easy to just pull it up on my laptop and it was also very user friendly. 
  • Thanks for not making us pay for a book!
  • In many of my other classes I buy an expensive textbook and never use it! The teacher most likely gives study guides where you can get all the answers from the notes. Therefore, I think that an online textbook is much more effective, easy, and efficient.

Students also replied to questions about the use of the textbook in the class.  The majority of students were happy with using the OER textbook:

  • 72% of students said they used the OER textbook much more or more than normal textbook in other classes.
  • 96% of students strongly agreed or agreed that they liked the idea of an online textbook.
  • 92% of students rated the quality of the online textbook as very good or good.
  • Only 8% of students strongly agreed or agreed that they would still like to have a normal textbook to use in addition to online textbook for ED 100.

Trudy J. Naman, Ed.D.

I am an adjunct faculty at Santa Ana College and Vanguard University. I have taught in higher education for over 25 years. I have taught Introduction to Education at Santa Ana College since 2008 and assisted with the customization of the formerly selected textbook.  

In addition to a Doctoral degree in Education, I have a Masters degree in Curriculum and Instruction with an emphasis on Educational Technology.