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Neuroscience Course for Basic Medical Sciences

Neuroscience is a comprehensive lecture and laboratory course that provides an integrated multidisciplinary study of the structure and functional relationships of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Essential to a proper understanding of Neurosciences is the ability to classify, correlate, associate and link the various entities and modules, much the same way as normal human cognition works in real life. This subject assumes basic knowledge of anatomy of Head and Cranial nerves. The syllabus is divided into easily understandable modules based on Snell’s chapter, supplemented by Board Review Series. Neurobiology and neurophysiology, brain metabolism, and the effects of damage and disease on cells of the central nervous system are covered in detail in the initial part of the course. Students are also introduced to techniques of neuro-imaging and taught introductory clinical assessment during this time. Thereafter the entire central nervous system, from spinal cord upwards to the cerebral cortex, is covered in minute detail. Each component of CNS is subdivided into two parts; the normal concepts and the pertinent clinical correlations. Knowledge is imparted by comprehensive techniques that utilize visual, verbal, auditory and kinesthetic learning styles of individuals. Learning is enhanced through laboratory gross brain dissection, imaging techniques and discussion of clinical correlations. Research skills are honed by subjecting students to a small project work, which they have to present towards the end of the course.


Course:

Lecture-series 1: Introduction and Organization of the nervous system

Lecture-series 2: Neurobiology of the neuron and neuroglia

Lecture-series 3: Nerve fibers, Peripheral nerve fibers, Receptors & Effector endings, Dermatomes & Muscle activity

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Learning objectives of series 1

• Nervous system functional correlate (Slide 3) • Main divisions of nervous system (Slides 4 – 5) • Coverings / spaces of the CNS (Slides 6 – 9) • Histological components of NS (Slides 10) • Subdivisions of CNS (Slide 11) • Spinal cord subdivisions / dissection / overview of tracts (Slides 12 – 15) • Subdivisions of PNS (Slide 16) • Spinal nerves (Slides 17 – 18); Spinal segment (Slide 19); Dermatomes (Slides 19 – 26) • Cranial nerves: Overview (Slide 27) • Ganglia: Spinal / Cranial / Autonomic (28 – 33) • Brain: Embryological subdivisions / component overview (Slides 34 – 48) • Vertebral – spinal segment relationships (3 – 4) • Vertebral injuries in relation to spinal cord (5 – 12) • Spinal root / Dermato-myotome / Segmental innervations / lesions (Slides 13 – 21) • Spinal nerve in relation to IV foramen (Slides 22 – 24) • Herniated nucleus pulposus (Slides 25 – 37) • Lesions of nerve roots / Radiculopathy (w/ vignette) (Slide 38 – 43) • Lumbar puncture / Epidural analgesia (44 – 49) • Skull fractures (Slides 50 – 53) • Brain injuries / Intracranial hemorrhages / Shaken baby syndrome (Slides 54 – 62) • Intracranial space-occupying lesion (Slides 63 – 70) • Imaging techniques / principles / interpretations– CT, MRI, PET (Slides 71 – 80)

Learning objectives of series 2

• Neuron and its parts (Slide 3) • Neuron varieties – classification (Slides 4 – 12) • Ganglia histology: Sensory / Autonomic (13 – 15) • Neuronal biology – organelles (Slide 16 – 32) • Neurites: Dendrite / Axons – components, structure (Slides 33 – 40) • Axonal transport mechanisms (Slides 41 – 44) • Synapse – Types; structure, function (Slides 45 – 52) • Neuroglial cell types: Astrocytes, Oligodendroglia, Schwann cell, Microglia, Ependymocyte, Tancyte, Choroidal epithelial cell (Slides 53 – 70) • CNS extracellular space (Slide 71) • Axonal spread of disease (Slide 3) • Herpes zoster (Slides 4 – 6) • Pathological intracellular inclusions (Slides 7 – 12) • Peripheral neuropathy: Mono-/ MM / Poly-neuropathy; Diabetes, HIV w/ vignette (13 – 25) • Glial reactions to injury (Slides 26 – 27) • Cerebral edema types (Slides 28 – 29) • Brain tumors including Neurofibromatosis (NF) Type 2 (Slides 30 – 43) • Peripheral nerve tumors including NF-1 (44 – 47) Neurophysiology • Neuronal plasma membrane – structure (Slide 3) • Ion channels (Slides 4 – 6) • Plasma membrane electrophysiology / RMP (7 – 13) • Neuron action potential / Subthreshold; Ion- channels. Membrane conductance; Refractory periods; Hyperpolarization (Slides 14 – 23) • Nerve impulse; Determinants; Saltatory (24 – 30) Neurotransmitter – Pharmacology – Clinical • Neuromediators (Slides 31 – 34) • Calcium channels (Slides 35 – 36) • Synaptic receptors / Receptor potentials (37 – 44) • Acetylcholine (45 – 47); ACh receptor pharmacology (48 – 50) • Channel toxins / Local anesthetics (51 – 53) Neuromuscular junction – Physiology – Pharmacology – Clinical • NM junction structure and Physiology (54 – 64) • NMJ pharmacology • Anticholinesterases / SLUD syndrome • Biological ACh toxins • Myasthenia gravis w/ vignette • Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndro w/ vignette • Channelopathies w/ vignette

Learning objectives of series 3

• Myelinated of PNS / CNS / Unmyelinated nerve • Peripheral nerve structure • Nerve fiber classification • Extero-ceptor Functional / Anatomical classification; Types; Receptor physiology • Proprio-ceptors: NM / NT spindles, joint receptors • Muscle innervation, Myotome, Reflex arc, Tone, Posture; Higher control • Demyelinating diseases • PNS neuronal / process injury changes • PNS neuronal / axon recovery process • CNS neuronal injury / (non)-recovery • Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) – Seddon’s / Sunderland classification • Neurotmesis manifestations / recovery • Surgical Mx principles of PNI • Phantom limb • Involuntary movements / Sensory abnormalities • Clinical examination: Sensory / Motor

Pedagogical Approach

None

Learning Outcomes

Learning outcomes: At the end of these 3 lecture-series the student should

• Have a thorough knowledge of the basics of the nervous system, its classification and subdivisions

• Be absolutely clear about the essentials of neuro-cytology, neuro-physiological principles and the neurotransmitters involved in nerve conduction

• Have a working knowledge of the mechanisms of muscle activity, tone, posture and reflexes

• Have a broad overview of the clinical manifestations of nerve lesions (traumatic and pathological)

• To be able to perform sensory, motor and reflex testing • Know the basics of neuro-imaging techniques and principles

Assessment

None

Other Information

None