ICT Literacy in Physical Education

Compiled by Dr. Lesley Farmer, California State University Long Beach



  • Key Terms: physical education, kinesiology, athletics, health and fitness education, sports science, applied human sciences, exercise education, recreation education, outdoor leadership, movement/sport and leisure studies
  • Education/ TeacherEd/ Physical Education
  • Science and Technology/ KinesiologyAcademic Support Services/ ICT Literacy
  • Academic Support Services/Library and Information Services/ Information and Communication Technology Literacy
  • Also look under specific aspects of physical education (e.g., sports, coaching, fitness)Teacher Education Community Portal:




  • Aimin, L., Jianjun, L., Ganchen, T., Yuanping, C., & Shaoyong, W. (2015). Research on the inquiry teaching model of men's basketball teaching in college physical education based on network information technology. International Journal of Smart Home, 9(10), 169-178.
  • Barneva, R. P., & Hite, P. D. (2017). Information technology in sport management curricula. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 45(3), 326–342.

    Browne, T., & Lyle, J. (2018). Touch screen technology: implementing a technologically-enhanced profiling system for student sport coaches. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 44(3).

    Carlos, C., Alejandro, M. Q., & Francisco, P. (2017). The information and communications technology in higher education: A YouTube channel as a resource. Gymnasium: Scientific Journal of Education, Sports & Health, 18(1), 194–199.

  • Chow, J., Tan, C., Lee, M., & Button, C. (2014). Possibilities and implications of using a motion-tracking system in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 20(4), 444-464. doi: 10.1177/1356336X14535057 
  • Couceiro, R. M., Papastergiou, M., Kordaki, M., & Veloso, A. I. (2013). Design and evaluation of a computer game for the learning of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) concepts by physical education and sport science students. Education and Information Technologies, 18(3), 531-554. 
  • Di Tore, P. A., Discepolo, T., & Di Tore, S. (2013). Natural User Interfaces as a powerful tool for courseware design in Physical Education. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 9(2).
  • Hall, T. (2012). Emplotment, embodiment, engagement: Narrative technology in support of physical education, sport and physical activity. Quest, 64(2), 105-115.
  • Jodoin, T., & Robertson, L. (2014). Mobile devices in the gymnasium and weight-room: Integrating tablet technology in a physical education setting. International Journal of Knowledge Society Research (IJKSR), 5(2), 43-57.
  • Kang, S., & Kang, S. (2019). The study on the application of virtual reality in adapted physical education. Cluster Computing, 22(1), 2351–2355.
  • Kiili, K., Tuomi, P., Koskela, M., & Earp, J. (2014). Learning by creating educational exergames. In Finnish Innovations and Technologies in Schools (pp. 87-96). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
  • Kim, G.-C., & Gurvitch, R. (2018). Integrating web-assessment technology in health and physical education. JOPERD: The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 89(9), 12–19.
  • Kretschmann, R. (2015). Effect of physical education teachers' computer literacy on technology use in physical education. Physical Educator, 72, 261-277.
  • Le, Y. (2013). Integration pattern research of information technology in physical education. International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications, 7(3), 248-256.
  • Loia, V., & Orciuoli, F. (2019). ICTs for exercise and sport science: focus on augmented reality. Journal of Physical Education & Sport, 19, 1740–1747.
  • O’Connor, J., Jeans, R., & Alfrey, L. (2016). Authentic inquiry-based learning in health and physical education: A case study of r/evolutionary practice. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 21(2), 201-216.
  • Pill, S. A. (2012). Rethinking sport teaching in physical education. Doctoral dissertation, University of Tasmania.
  • Tan, C., Chow, J., & Davids, K. (2011). How does TGfU work? Examining the relations between learning design in TGfU and a nonlinear pedagogy. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 17(4), 331-348.
  • Wei Li. (2017). Application of cloud computing in informatization of physical education teaching resources. Revista de La Facultad de Ingenieria, 32(11), 626–631.

    Xianzhou An. (2018). Innovative physical education methods based on computer technology. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 18(5), 2115–2123.

    Yi Liu, & Yuanlong Liu. (2018). The influence of the internet sports information on college physical education. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 18(6), 2949–2957.

  • Zheng, F. (2014, January). Research on information technology application in college physical education. In 2014 International Conference on Education Reform and Modern Management (ERMM-14). Paris, France: Atlantis Press. 
  • Zhou Huang, Gu Yahui, & Liu Xin. (2018). Opportunities and challenges for the professional development of pe teachers in the process of “Internet + Education.” Journal of Shenyang Sport University, 37(6), 125–131.

  • Assign an entire class to conduct an investigation of a particular topic (e.g., physical fitness training) from its treatment in the popular media, and then trace its origin in conversations among scholars and researchers. 
  • Ask students to locate a seminal work on a PE topic (e.g., constructivism) and then identify sources that preceded and continued the conversation, analyzing the impact of the seminal work on the field. 
  • Create a timeline to track the evolving threads of a continuing scholarly conversation on a physical education topic (e.g., adapted PE). 
  • Ask a physical education researcher/guest speaker to attend the class (physically or virtually) and describe a research project from conception to conclusion (e.g., site action research). 
  • Ask students to diagram the steps reflected in the description, and then work with the speaker to develop a robust conception of the process (recognizing that the process varies from project to project and researcher to researcher). 
  • Ask students to then journal about how their research process relates to that of the researcher, and what changes they might make in order to attempt more authentic, knowledge-generating research experiences. Provide students with two different information types (with two different goals) on the same PE topic by the same unnamed authoritative creator/author (for example, scholarly article and blog post). Use as discussion starter with students about context in relationship to authority. Reveal authorship later in discussion. 
  • Ask students to find several scholarly sources on the same topic (e.g., social development in PE) that take very different stands. How was it that the authors came to different conclusions? Does it have to do with authority? 
  • Ask students to create a citation "web" using a citation analysis database, and conduct a content analysis of the linked authors by affiliation (workplace, academic preparation, geography, subject expertise). Do authors cite each other? Are there some authors who are outliers in the web? How do such connections impact information generation?   
  • Ask students to identify several different applicable information sources in different formats that might be used to help teach a specific content. 
  • Ask them to explain the unique values of each in terms of learning. 
  • Ask students to transform an instructional aid they have created in one format to another format (e.g., PowerPoint to an infographic), and to write a reflection on what they needed to consider as they went through the process. 
  • Ask students to brainstorm possible sources that might have relevant information about lesson planning. What tools will they need to locate those resources? 
  • Ask students to identify two relevant databases for a PE project they are working on, and analyze why they consider them to be an effective resource for their research. 
  • Ask them to research the same topic in the two databases, and compare the process and results. 
  • Ask students to choose a topic, develop key terms to search with, and use two different search engines to locate information on their topic. Have them compare the results in terms of quantity, types of sources (e.g., government, educational, scholarly, commercial), order/sequence of results, and relevance. Pair students who used the same search engine with different topics to compare results. 
  • Ask students to write an I-Search paper on a PE issue (e.g., relationship of PE to athletics), whereby they journal their searching processes, including key terms, tools used, and resources/results at each step. They should note how they evaluated their resources, and what information was extracted. Their journal should also reflect their feelings: success, concern, frustration, pride, etc. Pair up students, and ask them to read and comment on each other's journal, and then draw up conclusions and recommendations for their peers. 
  • Ask students to use the National Center for Education Statistics ( to form and answer a research question about physical education (e.g., Is there a correlation between the number of days per week of scheduled PE and student graduation rate). 
  • Ask students to locate TV or film clips that illustrate effective and ineffective PE teaching techniques, and then give a media review/critique explaining their observations and implications. 
  • Ask students to create a lesson plan based on a depiction of PE in movies (see
  • Ask students to create a Public Service Announcement about some action that parents can do to help their children succeed in wellness and fitness. 
  • Ask students to create a graphic novel about wellness and fitness. 
  • Ask students to identify a population with special needs (e.g., middle schoolers with hearing impairments), and create a database of appropriate PE strategies. 
  • Ask students to use drawing or image editing software to create an ideal PE environment, noting the focus of the facility and reasoning for the design. 
  • Ask students to compare PE practices around the world. 
  • Ask students to research intellectual property law (both copyright and patents/trademarks) as it applies to PE. 
  • Ask students to research and debate ethical issues in PE. 
  • Ask students to compare codes of ethics from different sectors of PE. 
  • Ask students to interview personnel in different jobs affiliated with PE. Ask students to compare the same job across different organizations, and within the same organization. 
  • Ask students to take pictures of a typical day in a recreation facility, and compare findings. 
  • Ask students to research the impact of technology on physical education. 
  • Ask students to investigate the impact of PE in U.S. history using primary sources (e.g., the Library of Congress’s American Memory collections: