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"Introduction to Groups, Invariants and Particles" icon

Introduction to Groups, Invariants and Particles

The notion of geometrical symmetry in Art and in Nature is a familiar one. In Modern Physics, this notion has evolved to include symmetries of an abstract kind. These new symmetries play an essential part in the theories of the microstructure of matter. The basic symmetries found in Nature seem to originate in the mathematical structure of the laws themselves, laws that govern the motions of the galaxies on the one hand and the motions of quarks in nucleons on the other. In the Newtonian era, the laws of Nature were deduced from a small number of imperfect observations by a small number of renowned scientists and mathematicians. It was not until the Einsteinian era, however, that the significance of the symmetries associated with the laws was fully appreciated. The discovery of space-time... Show More


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