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Vodni ekosistemi – struktura in funkcija / Freshwater ecosystems – structure and function

Vodni ekosistemi – struktura in funkcija / Freshwater ecosystems – structure and function

This video was recorded at Mednarodni posvet Biološka znanost in družba: Ekosistemi - povezanost živih sistemov / International Conference Bioscience and Society: Ecosystems - Interdependence of Living Systems. Celinski vodni ekosistemi so edinstveni v več pogledih. V celotni hidrosferi predstavljajo zanemarljiv delež, z ekološkega vidika pa so pestra okolja z značilnimi združbami, prilagojenimi na specifične svetlobne in toplotne razmere ter navzočnost raznovrstnih kemičnih snovi naravnega in antropogenega izvora. So tisti ekosistemi, ki so v zemeljski zgodovini usodno vplivali (in še danes je tako) na razvoj človeške družbe in številnih kultur. Abiotska različnost stoječih in tekočih voda določa različnost življenjskih združb, njihovo strukturo in funkcijo. Neposredna povezanost organizmov in procesov v vodnem mediju in usedlinah vsakega vodnega okolja zagotavlja celovitost kroženja snovi in energije v vodnem telesu. Dogajanja v kopnih ekosistemih, posebej delovanje človeka, usodno vplivajo na spremembe dogajanj v vodnih okoljih. Vplivi prispevnega kopnega okolja odločujoče določajo delovanje vodnih ekosistemov, preprosto vplivajo na njihove naravne lastnosti. Bremena kopnih eksositemov postanejo bremena vodnih. Stopnja obremenitve in onesnaženja povsod po svetu narašča, zato je nujen ekosistemski pristop k reševanju okoljskih problemov. Mogoče pa je le na temelju poznavanja naravnih procesov, razumevanja življenjskih prostorov in pripadajočih življenjskih združb v naravnih okoljih. Pričujoči članek govori o tem, kakšni sta abiotska in biotska struktura vodnih teles in kako delujejo celinski vodni ekosistemi. Continental water ecosystems are unique in several respects. They represent a negligible portion of total hydrosphere, yet they are – from the ecological point of view – diverse environments with typical communities adapted to specific light and temperature conditions and to presence of various chemicals of natural and anthropogenic origin. They are the ecosystems that fatally influenced the development of the human society and cultures throughout the history and still do today. Abiotic diversity of stagnant and running water defines the diversity of life communities, their structure and function. The immediate connection of organisms and processes in the water medium and sediment of every aquatic environment ensures the completeness of material and energy circulation in it. Activities, especially human activities, in terrestrial environment significantly effect and change the activities and natural characteristics of aquatic environments. The terrestrial load becomes the aquatic load. The levels of load and pollution are increasing all over the world therefore ecosystemic approach for solving environmental problems is necessary, which is only possible when based on the knowledge of natural processes and understanding of biotopes and communities in natural environments. The topic of this paper is the abiotic and biotic structure of aquatic body and the activity of continental water ecosystems.

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