According to The Orange Grove, "Mαthematical Mαrketing is a flexible textbook for use in quantitative PhD courses in marketing. This book attempts to create a text designed to allow students to follow the mathematical reasoning used in Marketing Science, Journal of Marketing Research and other quantitatively oriented journals. As such, it does not hide the mathematics, but it does not assume that the student already has an extensive background in mathematics. The work can be used whole or in modules. Modules can be used as is or integrated into other class materials, books or other electronic output."